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Osteoporosis | Endocrine Society

Osteoporosis refers to weak bones. Osteopenia is one more time period, occasionally employed to describe a less significant condition of weaker bones. Equally are “silent” health conditions mainly because bone reduction generally takes place with no you understanding it. As a consequence, bones come to be weak, and are extra likely to break (fracture). Specified medications can bring about bone decline if applied for a for a longer period time. Use about a shorter time, this kind of as a several months, is commonly not a problem. Damaged bones can lead to suffering and incapacity. For instance, some older persons who break a hip may well eliminate their capacity to perform independently. A important share of these folks also tend to have a shorter lifespan right after sustaining a hip fracture.  

Right until about age 30, our physique sorts ample new bone to exchange the bone that is the natural way broken down by the physique (a course of action identified as bone turnover). Our optimum bone mass (dimension and thickness) is attained among the ages of 20 and 25, and it declines following that. Just after menopause, girls start to lose bone at an even more quickly level. 

A bone mineral density test named a DXA scan employs incredibly low dose X-ray to examine actions of bone high quality and toughness. The outcomes aid forecast future possibility of fracture and enable information choices as to whether prescription medications are probable to be advantageous. This examination can detect early bone decline, even before the much more major condition of osteoporosis takes place. 

Protecting against Bone Reduction: 

  • Get enough calcium and vitamin D, either via food plan and/or health supplements. Intention for at minimum 1,000–1,200 mg of calcium every day. Vitamin D demands can change from 400 IU to 10,000 Iu per day and are ideal guided by blood examination success.  
  • Keep Active and do weight-bearing exercises  
  • Prevent smoking 
  • Steer clear of alcohol 


  • Changing medications: If your medicines are recognised to lead to bone reduction, explore with your medical doctor if you could choose the least expensive feasible dose for the shortest attainable time. 
  • Osteoporosis medications: Some medications can avert or deal with osteoporosis. The most popular type, called a bisphosphonate, is taken as a pill by mouth or as a liquid through a vein. This sort of medication keeps bones strong by encouraging the bones keep calcium, a key setting up-block. 
  • Calcium: Great sources of calcium involve milk, yogurt, cheese, collard greens, and meals with extra calcium, this sort of as cereal and soy drinks.
  • Vitamin D: Vitamin D, which can help the physique absorb calcium, is created in the skin when people devote time in the solar, but quantities received this way can change broadly based on lots of sophisticated factors. Vitamin D is also located in salmon, shrimp, and milk with additional vitamin D. You may perhaps also have to have dietary dietary supplements to get enough calcium and vitamin D. 
  • Work out frequently: Two forms of exercise support preserve bones robust: body weight-bearing exercise, these types of as walking, functioning, dancing, and climbing stairs and training that strengthens muscle mass, this sort of as lifting weights. 
  • Select a nutritious way of life: Avoiding smoking can assistance continue to keep bones robust. Cigarette smoking may possibly reduced the volume of calcium that the physique can absorb. Some experiments also clearly show that ingesting a lot of alcohol may possibly weaken bones. 

Osteoporosis prevention and remedy contain physical exercise, and the correct total of calcium and Vitamin D in your eating plan. Most adults in excess of age 50 need to have a complete of around 1,200 mg of Calcium everyday. The greatest way to get calcium is through the foods you consume. You may well will need calcium dietary supplements if your food plan is not furnishing enough calcium to hold your bones sturdy. Taking far too considerably calcium, having said that, can improve the risk of kidney stones and perhaps heart illness. Vitamin D allows your entire body take up calcium and construct it into the bones. A lot of adults don’t have more than enough vitamin D in their bodies. 

More mature adult men and gals likely ought to get vitamin D nutritional supplements. The Countrywide Osteoporosis Basis endorses 800 to 1,000 IU (Global Units) of vitamin D3 per working day, but a lot of people need to have considerably bigger amounts on a every day foundation to preserve usual blood amounts of Vitamin D. Youthful gentlemen and females could have to have to take vitamin D nutritional supplements, as well. Pretty large doses of vitamin D, while really rare, can bring about critical wellness challenges, so discuss with your physician about how much is right for you. 

A well-well balanced diet program with calcium-rich foods, plus calcium and vitamin D health supplements, might not be enough to shield bones and reduce osteoporosis in all folks. Everyone’s health and household background are distinctive, so the hazard of breaking bones differs for each and every man or woman. Some people may possibly however demand prescription medications to take care of osteoporosis even nevertheless they get adequate Calcium and Vitamin D. 

In the United States, 44 million Americans are at risk for osteoporosis. 10 million previously have the ailment. Girls make up 80 % of circumstances. Some widespread chance elements that make it a lot more probably that you will acquire osteoporosis incorporate: 

  • Relatives background of fractures  
  • Women, immediately after Menopause 
  • Women of all ages, ahead of Menopause, who have irregular or no menstrual durations (amenorrhea) 
  • Slender or little body frame 
  • Caucasian or Asian ethnicity 
  • Diet small in calcium and/or vitamin D 
  • Minor or no exercise 
  • Cigarette smoking 
  • Consuming way too a lot alcohol 
  • Treatment with a steroid (this sort of as prednisone) for any sizeable size of time 
  • Obtaining a situation known as “rheumatoid arthritis”  

Too substantially bone decline (osteoporosis) can guide to fractures, which can induce critical health and fitness pitfalls, together with incapacity and untimely dying. Other aspects that can guide to osteoporosis involve: 

  • Hormonal conditions (these as overactive thyroid and parathyroid troubles, diabetes, abnormally elevated blood Cortisol and Prolactin amounts) 
  • Anorexia nervosa (a problem linked with quite weak nutrition and irregular functionality of ovaries leading to deficient menstrual cycles) 
  • Far too much work out or pressure that qualified prospects to reduction of menstrual periods 

Many medicines can cause bone decline if made use of about the extensive expression (many decades). Some frequent ones involve: 

  • Glucocorticoids, also named steroids, these kinds of as cortisone and prednisone. They are used to deal with arthritis, bronchial asthma, lupus, several sclerosis, and other ailments.
  • Some medicines this sort of as phenytoin and phenobarbital, which are utilised to take care of epilepsy. 
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH agonists), these types of as goserelin acetate and leuprolide acetate. They are used to deal with endometriosis, prostate most cancers, or feminine infertility. 
  • Aromatase inhibitors, this sort of as anastrozole, exemestane, and letrozole. They are used to handle breast cancer. 

Some folks who take thyroid hormone fret about bone decline. The doses of thyroid hormone used to deal with hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) never harm bone and should not be lead to for issue. Only significant doses, used for thyroid most cancers cure, can trigger bone reduction. 

High doses or prolonged-phrase use of medicines identified as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can increase the threat of bone decline. PPIs, such as esomeprazole, lansoprazole, and omeprazole, are utilized for GERD (acid reflux), peptic ulcer, or heartburn. On the other hand, receiving adequate calcium and vitamin D may well be enough to lessen the danger. 

Industry experts never know yet whether selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine and escitalopram, boost fracture hazard. Some reports demonstrate a smaller unfavorable impact on bone, but others do not. SSRIs are used for depression and obsessive-compulsive problem. Communicate to your medical professional if you take an SSRI and are concerned about bone loss. 

  • Am I at hazard for osteoporosis? 
  • Do I need to have a bone density exam? 
  • How generally should I have a bone density exam? 
  • Need to I just take calcium and vitamin D dietary supplements? How significantly do I need to have? 
  • What need to I do to defend my bones? 
  • What else can I do to keep my bones strong? 
  • Do any of my medications bring about bone reduction? 
  • Are there distinct medications I can acquire? 
  • Should really I be getting medication to safeguard my bones? 
  • Really should I see an endocrinologist?